They compiled a comprehensive data set of cetacean brain and body mass, group size and social characteristics.
Bigger brains were also linked to other factors, including dietary richness and geographical range. The authors say these results are consistent with theories that cetaceans developed large brains to deal with the challenges of living in information-rich social environments.
Yet Robert Barton, an evolutionary biologist at Durham University in England, who did not take part in the work, cautions against drawing conclusions about causation from correlation. Byhowever, forest loss rates had ballooned.
New mines started to appear in the following years. They invaded protected areas such as the Tambopata National Reserve—home to the indigenous Ese Ejja, Quechua and Aymara peoples, as well as brightly colored macaws, giant river otters and 18 Scientific American, January © Scientific American jaguars. By mining operations had felled at least 1, acres of forest within the reserve.
Now a study reports that illicit mining is sharply on the rise despite local government efforts to curb it—and this is taking a heavy toll on the ecosystem.
Authorities conducted raids, dismantled clandestine camps, and regulated fuel and supply traffic. Despite the crackdown, the total mining area had increased by about 40 percent to aroundacres just four years later.
Extracting gold from rock can contaminate the environment. Illegal mining activities often use liquid mercury, a toxic chemical that can drip into the soil or be burned off and released as toxic fumes. And the consequences of illicit mining go well beyond those of the extraction process. Miners often chop down thousands of acres of forest with heavy machinery that scars the landscape. These dark shapes are strands of xylem cells bitcoin code auto trading martin lewis by rings of wood, like miniature pine or oak trees— although researchers have not yet determined whether they can age the cladoxylopsid tree by its rings.
But not all stumps tell the same story.
Some million years ago cladoxylopsid trees stood at least eight meters tall, capped by branches with twiggy appendages instead of leaves. They looked a bit like spindly palm trees. Today their scant remains reveal little about their insides; in most cases their innards had rotted before the trees fossilized, and storms had filled them with sand.
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But the recent find Large tree fossil: This fossil is one of several—the wedge shape is like a slice from a larger pie. At its heart, the mature cladoxylopsid tree was hollow. Around the edges ran thick, vertical strands containing xylem, the tubelike structures that carry water through many plants.
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Modern trees add new layers of multiple xylem as they grow, creating a woody trunk with a single set of concentric rings. As the cladoxylopsids grew, these columns of xylem split themselves apart—most likely to supply water to the expanding plant.
Rings of wood then formed around the newly created strands. He likens these networks of flexible tissues and structures to the Eiffel Tower—if said tower could grow, stretch and rip itself apart over time.
Although the cladoxylopsid tree has no living descendants today, it does have an important legacy.
Given this fact, maybe we should study these trees for the forests. They now plan to add rockets to the vehicle in hopes of breaking the world land-speed record.
Scientists tracked the ice loss in around 1, mountain glaciers across the U. The cause is unclear, but researchers caution that if this trend continues, it could disrupt the entire food chain. They think these structures, whose purpose remains unclear, may be the work of ancient nomadic tribes. For more details, visit www. We will never charge a cancellation fee, and our renewal subscription rates are notably lower. The safest and easiest way to renew your subscription is by enrolling in continuous service at www.
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If you suspect that you have received an unauthorized renewal notice by mail or by phone, please email us at [email protected] 20 Scientific American, January © Scientific American Cobalt is a critical component in batteries for electric cars and portable electronics.
But another element—cobalt— is a bigger concern, scientists reported in October in the journal Joule. Olivetti and her colleagues calculated just how short cobalt supplies could fall if electric vehicles EVs take off as expected— and the findings are sobering. Access Scientific American anytime, anywhere. Lithium battery cathodes are made of layers of como cambiar de euro un bitcoins metal oxides that contain some combination of cobalt and other metals.
Olivetti and her colleagues extrapolated trends in lithium and cobalt supply through To calculate demand, they created two scenarios based on estimates of slow or speedy growth in battery use for EVs and portable electronics.
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Lithium is unlikely to be a limiting factor in the long run, they found. But even with a very conservative estimate of 10 million EV sales inthe demand for cobalt that year could reachmetric tons, whereas the available supply at that time would be at mostmetric tons.
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Cobalt is a by-product of copper and nickel mining, so its production depends on the demand for those metals. Recycling lithium batteries is complicated and rarely done.
Newer cathode chemistries offer hope, however. Recently developed nickel-rich formulations will reduce cobalt demand, Gaines says.
Cobalt-free cathodes are also under development, and researchers hope to make them practical. No big deal. Dennett Austin B. Fletcher Professor of Philosophy, Tufts University.
Scientific American - January 2018
Deductible for income tax purposes. The Messy Facts about Diet and Inflammation Can certain foods really help you fight heart disease, arthritis and dementia?
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By Claudia Wallis In health, as with so many things, our greatest strength can be our greatest weakness. Take our astonishingly sophisticated response to injury and infection. Strategia de tranzacționare bitcoin cfd bodies unleash armies of cellular troops to slaughter invaders and clear out traitors.
Their movements are marshaled by signaling chemicals, such as the interleukins, which tell cells where and when to fight and when to stand down.
We experience this as the swelling, redness and soreness of inflammation—an essential part of healing. Still, no one knew if runaway inflammation could actually pull the trigger on heart attacks and strokes—until this summer. It was sweet bitcoin code auto trading martin lewis for cardiologist and principal investigator Paul Ridker of Harvard University, who had long contended that inflammation was as vital a target as cholesterol.
But it is tempting to extrapolate lessons for all of us. I mean something we can do every day of our lives: eat right. Many aim at specific ailments—arthritis, breast cancer, heart disease, various autoimmune disorders.
Sure, plenty of foods have been found to reduce inflammation—many of them in laboratory experiments as opposed to in people: turmeric, blueberries, ginger, tea, various vegetables, dark chocolate, fish.
University of South Carolina epidemiologists James Hébert and Nitin Shivappa valiantly surveyed 1, such studies and published in a Dietary Inflammatory Index, with 45 food elements. When I asked Ridker his views on anti-inflammatory diets, he grew uneasy.